Static IP Address Assignment
To configure your system to use a static IP address assignment, add the static method to the inet address family statement for the appropriate interface in the file /etc/network/interfaces. The example below assumes you are configuring your first Ethernet interface identified as eth0. Change the address, netmask, and gateway values to meet the requirements of your network.
auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 10.0.0.100 netmask 255.255.255.0 gateway 10.0.0.1
By adding an interface configuration as shown above, you can manually enable the interface through the ifup command.
sudo ifup eth0
To manually disable the interface, you can use the ifdown command.
sudo ifdown eth0
The loopback interface is identified by the system as lo and has a default IP address of 127.0.0.1. It can be viewed using the ifconfig command.
ifconfig lo lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:2718 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:2718 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:183308 (183.3 KB) TX bytes:183308 (183.3 KB)
By default, there should be two lines in /etc/network/interfaces responsible for automatically configuring your loopback interface. It is recommended that you keep the default settings unless you have a specific purpose for changing them. An example of the two default lines are shown below.
auto lo iface lo inet loopback
This Snipped came from: https://help.ubuntu.com/lts/serverguide/network-configuration.html